The text of the Protocol to the UNFCCC was adopted at the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997; it was open for signature from 16 March 1998 to 15 March 1999 at United Nations Headquarters, New York. By that date the Protocol had received 84 signatures. Those Parties that have not yet signed the Kyoto Protocol may accede to it at any time.
The Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by Parties to the Convention. It shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on which not less than 55 Parties to the Convention, incorporating Annex I Parties which accounted in total for at least 55 % of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 from that group, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
The list, to the right,
contains the latest information concerning dates of signature and
ratification received from the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as
Depository of the Kyoto Protocol. The dates in the column entitled "date of
ratification" are those of the receipt of the instrument of ratification
(R), acceptance (At), approval (Ap) or accession (Ac).
(For an explanation of these legal terms, visit the
UN's Treaty Reference Guide).
As of 2 February 2005, 141 states and regional economic integration organizations have deposited instruments of ratifications, accessions, approvals or acceptances.
The total percentage of Annex I Parties emissions is 61.6%.
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