Second LDC Trade Ministers'
DOHA WTO MINISTERIAL 2001: MINISTERIAL DECLARATION
WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1 20 November 2001
Adopted on 14 November 2001
1. The multilateral trading system embodied in the World Trade Organization has contributed significantly to economic growth, development and employment throughout the past fifty years. We are determined, particularly in the light of the global economic slowdown, to maintain the process of reform and liberalization of trade policies, thus ensuring that the system plays its full part in promoting recovery, growth and development. We therefore strongly reaffirm the principles and objectives set out in the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, and pledge to reject the use of protectionism.
2. International trade can play a major role in the promotion of economic development and the alleviation of poverty. We recognize the need for all our peoples to benefit from the increased opportunities and welfare gains that the multilateral trading system generates. The majority of WTO members are developing countries. We seek to place their needs and interests at the heart of the Work Programme adopted in this Declaration. Recalling the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement, we shall continue to make positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least-developed among them, secure a share in the growth of world trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development. In this context, enhanced market access, balanced rules, and well targeted, sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building programmes have important roles to play.
3. We recognize the particular vulnerability of the least-developed countries and the special structural difficulties they face in the global economy. We are committed to addressing the marginalization of least-developed countries in international trade and to improving their effective participation in the multilateral trading system. We recall the commitments made by ministers at our meetings in Marrakesh, Singapore and Geneva, and by the international community at the Third UN Conference on Least-Developed Countries in Brussels, to help least-developed countries secure beneficial and meaningful integration into the multilateral trading system and the global economy. We are determined that the WTO will play its part in building effectively on these commitments under the Work Programme we are establishing.
4. We stress our commitment to the WTO as the unique forum for global trade rule-making and liberalization, while also recognizing that regional trade agreements can play an important role in promoting the liberalization and expansion of trade and in fostering development.
5. We are aware that the challenges members face in a rapidly changing international environment cannot be addressed through measures taken in the trade field alone. We shall continue to work with the Bretton Woods institutions for greater coherence in global economic policy-making.
6. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the objective of sustainable development, as stated in the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement. We are convinced that the aims of upholding and safeguarding an open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, and acting for the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development can and must be mutually supportive. We take note of the efforts by members to conduct national environmental assessments of trade policies on a voluntary basis. We recognize that under WTO rules no country should be prevented from taking measures for the protection of human, animal or plant life or health, or of the environment at the levels it considers appropriate, subject to the requirement that they are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, and are otherwise in accordance with the provisions of the WTO Agreements. We welcome the WTO´s continued cooperation with UNEP and other inter-governmental environmental organizations. We encourage efforts to promote cooperation between the WTO and relevant international environmental and developmental organizations, especially in the lead-up to the World Summit on Sustainable Development to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in September 2002.
7. We reaffirm the right of members under the General Agreement on Trade in Services to regulate, and to introduce new regulations on, the supply of services.
8. We reaffirm our declaration made at the Singapore Ministerial Conference regarding internationally recognized core labour standards. We take note of work under way in the International Labour Organization (ILO) on the social dimension of globalization.
9. We note with particular satisfaction that this conference has completed the WTO accession procedures for China and Chinese Taipei. We also welcome the accession as new members, since our last session, of Albania, Croatia, Georgia, Jordan, Lithuania, Moldova and Oman, and note the extensive market-access commitments already made by these countries on accession. These accessions will greatly strengthen the multilateral trading system, as will those of the 28 countries now negotiating their accession. We therefore attach great importance to concluding accession proceedings as quickly as possible. In particular, we are committed to accelerating the accession of least-developed countries.
10. Recognizing the challenges posed by an expanding WTO membership, we confirm our collective responsibility to ensure internal transparency and the effective participation of all members. While emphasizing the intergovernmental character of the organization, we are committed to making the WTO's operations more transparent, including through more effective and prompt dissemination of information, and to improve dialogue with the public. We shall therefore at the national and multilateral levels continue to promote a better public understanding of the WTO and to communicate the benefits of a liberal, rules-based multilateral trading system.
11. In view of these
considerations, we hereby agree to undertake the broad and balanced Work
Programme set out below. This incorporates both an expanded negotiating
agenda and other important decisions and activities necessary to address the
challenges facing the multilateral trading system.
Implementation-related issues and concerns
12. We attach the utmost
importance to the implementation-related issues and concerns raised by
members and are determined to find appropriate solutions to them. In this
connection, and having regard to the General Council Decisions of 3 May and
15 December 2000, we further adopt the Decision on Implementation-Related
Issues and Concerns in document WT/MIN(01)/17 to address a number of
implementation problems faced by members. We agree that negotiations on
outstanding implementation issues shall be an integral part of the Work
Programme we are establishing, and that agreements reached at an early stage
in these negotiations shall be treated in accordance with the provisions of
paragraph 47 below. In this regard, we shall proceed as follows: (a) where
we provide a specific negotiating mandate in this declaration, the relevant
implementation issues shall be addressed under that mandate; (b) the other
outstanding implementation issues shall be addressed as a matter of priority
by the relevant WTO bodies, which shall report to the Trade Negotiations
Committee, established under paragraph 46 below, by the end of 2002 for
13. We recognize the work already undertaken in the negotiations initiated in early 2000 under Article 20 of the Agreement on Agriculture, including the large number of negotiating proposals submitted on behalf of a total of 121 members. We recall the long-term objective referred to in the Agreement to establish a fair and market-oriented trading system through a programme of fundamental reform encompassing strengthened rules and specific commitments on support and protection in order to correct and prevent restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets. We reconfirm our commitment to this programme. Building on the work carried out to date and without prejudging the outcome of the negotiations we commit ourselves to comprehensive negotiations aimed at: substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support. We agree that special and differential treatment for developing countries shall be an integral part of all elements of the negotiations and shall be embodied in the schedules of concessions and commitments and as appropriate in the rules and disciplines to be negotiated, so as to be operationally effective and to enable developing countries to effectively take account of their development needs, including food security and rural development. We take note of the non-trade concerns reflected in the negotiating proposals submitted by Members and confirm that non-trade concerns will be taken into account in the negotiations as provided for in the Agreement on Agriculture.
14. Modalities for the further
commitments, including provisions for special and differential treatment,
shall be established no later than 31 March 2003. Participants shall submit
their comprehensive draft Schedules based on these modalities no later than
the date of the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The
negotiations, including with respect to rules and disciplines and related
legal texts, shall be concluded as part and at the date of conclusion of the
negotiating agenda as a whole.
15. The negotiations on trade
in services shall be conducted with a view to promoting the economic growth
of all trading partners and the development of developing and
least-developed countries. We recognize the work already undertaken in the
negotiations, initiated in January 2000 under Article XIX of the General
Agreement on Trade in Services, and the large number of proposals submitted
by members on a wide range of sectors and several horizontal issues, as well
as on movement of natural persons. We reaffirm the Guidelines and Procedures
for the Negotiations adopted by the Council for Trade in Services on
28 March 2001 as the basis for continuing the negotiations, with a view to
achieving the objectives of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, as
stipulated in the Preamble, Article IV and Article XIX of that Agreement.
Participants shall submit initial requests for specific commitments by
30 June 2002 and initial offers by 31 March 2003.
16. We agree to negotiations which shall aim, by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries. Product coverage shall be comprehensive and without a priori exclusions. The negotiations shall take fully into account the special needs and interests of developing and least-developed country participants, including through less than full reciprocity in reduction commitments, in accordance with the relevant provisions of Article XXVIII bis of GATT 1994 and the provisions cited in paragraph 50 below. To this end, the modalities to be agreed will include appropriate studies and capacity-building measures to assist least-developed countries to participate effectively in the negotiations.
17. We stress the importance we attach to implementation and interpretation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) in a manner supportive of public health, by promoting both access to existing medicines and research and development into new medicines and, in this connection, are adopting a separate declaration.
18. With a view to completing the work started in the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (Council for TRIPS) on the implementation of Article 23.4, we agree to negotiate the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration of geographical indications for wines and spirits by the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. We note that issues related to the extension of the protection of geographical indications provided for in Article 23 to products other than wines and spirits will be addressed in the Council for TRIPS pursuant to paragraph 12 of this declaration.
19. We instruct the Council for TRIPS, in pursuing its work programme including under the review of Article 27.3(b), the review of the implementation of the TRIPS Agreement under Article 71.1 and the work foreseen pursuant to paragraph 12 of this declaration, to examine, inter alia, the relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protection of traditional knowledge and folklore, and other relevant new developments raised by members pursuant to Article 71.1. In undertaking this work, the TRIPS Council shall be guided by the objectives and principles set out in Articles 7 and 8 of the TRIPS Agreement and shall take fully into account the development dimension.
20. Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to secure transparent, stable and predictable conditions for long-term cross-border investment, particularly foreign direct investment, that will contribute to the expansion of trade, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph 21, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that session on modalities of negotiations.
21. We recognize the needs of developing and least-developed countries for enhanced support for technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.
22. In the period until the Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Relationship Between Trade and Investment will focus on the clarification of: scope and definition; transparency; non-discrimination; modalities for pre-establishment commitments based on a GATS-type, positive list approach; development provisions; exceptions and balance-of-payments safeguards; consultation and the settlement of disputes between members. Any framework should reflect in a balanced manner the interests of home and host countries, and take due account of the development policies and objectives of host governments as well as their right to regulate in the public interest. The special development, trade and financial needs of developing and least-developed countries should be taken into account as an integral part of any framework, which should enable members to undertake obligations and commitments commensurate with their individual needs and circumstances. Due regard should be paid to other relevant WTO provisions. Account should be taken, as appropriate, of existing bilateral and regional arrangements on investment.
23. Recognizing the case for a multilateral framework to enhance the contribution of competition policy to international trade and development, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity-building in this area as referred to in paragraph 24, we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that session on modalities of negotiations.
24. We recognize the needs of developing and least-developed countries for enhanced support for technical assistance and capacity building in this area, including policy analysis and development so that they may better evaluate the implications of closer multilateral cooperation for their development policies and objectives, and human and institutional development. To this end, we shall work in cooperation with other relevant intergovernmental organisations, including UNCTAD, and through appropriate regional and bilateral channels, to provide strengthened and adequately resourced assistance to respond to these needs.
25. In the period until the
Fifth Session, further work in the Working Group on the Interaction between
Trade and Competition Policy will focus on the clarification of: core
principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural
fairness, and provisions on hardcore cartels; modalities for voluntary
cooperation; and support for progressive reinforcement of competition
institutions in developing countries through capacity building. Full account
shall be taken of the needs of developing and least-developed country
participants and appropriate flexibility provided to address them.
26. Recognizing the case for a
multilateral agreement on transparency in government procurement and the
need for enhanced technical assistance and capacity building in this area,
we agree that negotiations will take place after the Fifth Session of the
Ministerial Conference on the basis of a decision to be taken, by explicit
consensus, at that session on modalities of negotiations. These negotiations
will build on the progress made in the Working Group on Transparency in
Government Procurement by that time and take into account participants’
development priorities, especially those of least-developed country
participants. Negotiations shall be limited to the transparency aspects and
therefore will not restrict the scope for countries to give preferences to
domestic supplies and suppliers. We commit ourselves to ensuring adequate
technical assistance and support for capacity building both during the
negotiations and after their conclusion.
27. Recognizing the case for
further expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including
goods in transit, and the need for enhanced technical assistance and
capacity building in this area, we agree that negotiations will take place
after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on the basis of a
decision to be taken, by explicit consensus, at that session on modalities
of negotiations. In the period until the Fifth Session, the Council for
Trade in Goods shall review and as appropriate, clarify and improve relevant
aspects of Articles V, VIII and X of the GATT 1994 and identify the trade
facilitation needs and priorities of members, in particular developing and
least-developed countries. We commit ourselves to ensuring adequate
technical assistance and support for capacity building in this area.
28. In the light of experience and of the increasing application of these instruments by members, we agree to negotiations aimed at clarifying and improving disciplines under the Agreements on Implementation of Article VI of the GATT 1994 and on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, while preserving the basic concepts, principles and effectiveness of these Agreements and their instruments and objectives, and taking into account the needs of developing and least-developed participants. In the initial phase of the negotiations, participants will indicate the provisions, including disciplines on trade distorting practices, that they seek to clarify and improve in the subsequent phase. In the context of these negotiations, participants shall also aim to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on fisheries subsidies, taking into account the importance of this sector to developing countries. We note that fisheries subsidies are also referred to in paragraph 31.
29. We also agree to
negotiations aimed at clarifying and improving disciplines and procedures
under the existing WTO provisions applying to regional trade agreements. The
negotiations shall take into account the developmental aspects of regional
30. We agree to negotiations
on improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding.
The negotiations should be based on the work done thus far as well as any
additional proposals by members, and aim to agree on improvements and
clarifications not later than May 2003, at which time we will take steps to
ensure that the results enter into force as soon as possible thereafter.
31. With a view to enhancing the mutual supportiveness of trade and environment, we agree to negotiations, without prejudging their outcome, on:
We note that fisheries subsidies form part of the negotiations provided for in paragraph 28.
32. We instruct the Committee on Trade and Environment, in pursuing work on all items on its agenda within its current terms of reference, to give particular attention to:
Work on these issues should include the identification of any need to clarify relevant WTO rules. The Committee shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference, and make recommendations, where appropriate, with respect to future action, including the desirability of negotiations. The outcome of this work as well as the negotiations carried out under paragraph 31(i) and (ii) shall be compatible with the open and non-discriminatory nature of the multilateral trading system, shall not add to or diminish the rights and obligations of members under existing WTO agreements, in particular the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, nor alter the balance of these rights and obligations, and will take into account the needs of developing and least-developed countries.
33. We recognize the
importance of technical assistance and capacity building in the field of
trade and environment to developing countries, in particular the
least-developed among them. We also encourage that expertise and experience
be shared with members wishing to perform environmental reviews at the
national level. A report shall be prepared on these activities for the Fifth
34. We take note of the work
which has been done in the General Council and other relevant bodies since
the Ministerial Declaration of 20 May 1998 and agree to continue the Work
Programme on Electronic Commerce. The work to date demonstrates that
electronic commerce creates new challenges and opportunities for trade for
members at all stages of development, and we recognize the importance of
creating and maintaining an environment which is favourable to the future
development of electronic commerce. We instruct the General Council to
consider the most appropriate institutional arrangements for handling the
Work Programme, and to report on further progress to the Fifth Session of
the Ministerial Conference. We declare that members will maintain their
current practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions
until the Fifth Session.
35. We agree to a work
programme, under the auspices of the General Council, to examine issues
relating to the trade of small economies. The objective of this work is to
frame responses to the trade-related issues identified for the fuller
integration of small, vulnerable economies into the multilateral trading
system, and not to create a sub-category of WTO Members. The General Council
shall review the work programme and make recommendations for action to the
Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference.
36. We agree to an
examination, in a Working Group under the auspices of the General Council,
of the relationship between trade, debt and finance, and of any possible
recommendations on steps that might be taken within the mandate and
competence of the WTO to enhance the capacity of the multilateral trading
system to contribute to a durable solution to the problem of external
indebtedness of developing and least-developed countries, and to strengthen
the coherence of international trade and financial policies, with a view to
safeguarding the multilateral trading system from the effects of financial
and monetary instability. The General Council shall report to the Fifth
Session of the Ministerial Conference on progress in the examination.
37. We agree to an
examination, in a Working Group under the auspices of the General Council,
of the relationship between trade and transfer of technology, and of any
possible recommendations on steps that might be taken within the mandate of
the WTO to increase flows of technology to developing countries. The General
Council shall report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference on
progress in the examination.
38. We confirm that technical cooperation and capacity building are core elements of the development dimension of the multilateral trading system, and we welcome and endorse the New Strategy for WTO Technical Cooperation for Capacity Building, Growth and Integration. We instruct the Secretariat, in coordination with other relevant agencies, to support domestic efforts for mainstreaming trade into national plans for economic development and strategies for poverty reduction. The delivery of WTO technical assistance shall be designed to assist developing and least-developed countries and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines, implement obligations and exercise the rights of membership, including drawing on the benefits of an open, rules-based multilateral trading system. Priority shall also be accorded to small, vulnerable, and transition economies, as well as to members and observers without representation in Geneva. We reaffirm our support for the valuable work of the International Trade Centre, which should be enhanced.
39. We underscore the urgent necessity for the effective coordinated delivery of technical assistance with bilateral donors, in the OECD Development Assistance Committee and relevant international and regional intergovernmental institutions, within a coherent policy framework and timetable. In the coordinated delivery of technical assistance, we instruct the Director-General to consult with the relevant agencies, bilateral donors and beneficiaries, to identify ways of enhancing and rationalizing the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least-Developed Countries and the Joint Integrated Technical Assistance Programme (JITAP).
40. We agree that there is a need for technical assistance to benefit from secure and predictable funding. We therefore instruct the Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration to develop a plan for adoption by the General Council in December 2001 that will ensure long-term funding for WTO technical assistance at an overall level no lower than that of the current year and commensurate with the activities outlined above.
41. We have established firm
commitments on technical cooperation and capacity building in various
paragraphs in this Ministerial Declaration. We reaffirm these specific
commitments contained in paragraphs 16, 21, 24, 26, 27, 33, 38-40, 42
and 43, and also reaffirm the understanding in paragraph 2 on the important
role of sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building
programmes. We instruct the Director-General to report to the Fifth Session
of the Ministerial Conference, with an interim report to the General Council
in December 2002 on the implementation and adequacy of these commitments in
the identified paragraphs.
42. We acknowledge the seriousness of the concerns expressed by the least-developed countries (LDCs) in the Zanzibar Declaration adopted by their ministers in July 2001. We recognize that the integration of the LDCs into the multilateral trading system requires meaningful market access, support for the diversification of their production and export base, and trade-related technical assistance and capacity building. We agree that the meaningful integration of LDCs into the trading system and the global economy will involve efforts by all WTO members. We commit ourselves to the objective of duty-free, quota-free market access for products originating from LDCs. In this regard, we welcome the significant market access improvements by WTO members in advance of the Third UN Conference on LDCs (LDC-III), in Brussels, May 2001. We further commit ourselves to consider additional measures for progressive improvements in market access for LDCs. Accession of LDCs remains a priority for the Membership. We agree to work to facilitate and accelerate negotiations with acceding LDCs. We instruct the Secretariat to reflect the priority we attach to LDCs’ accessions in the annual plans for technical assistance. We reaffirm the commitments we undertook at LDC-III, and agree that the WTO should take into account, in designing its work programme for LDCs, the trade-related elements of the Brussels Declaration and Programme of Action, consistent with the WTO’s mandate, adopted at LDC-III. We instruct the Sub-Committee for Least-Developed Countries to design such a work programme and to report on the agreed work programme to the General Council at its first meeting in 2002.
43. We endorse the Integrated
Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least-Developed
Countries (IF) as a viable model for LDCs’ trade development. We urge
development partners to significantly increase contributions to the IF Trust
Fund and WTO extra-budgetary trust funds in favour of LDCs. We urge the core
agencies, in coordination with development partners, to explore the
enhancement of the IF with a view to addressing the supply-side constraints
of LDCs and the extension of the model to all LDCs, following the review of
the IF and the appraisal of the ongoing Pilot Scheme in selected LDCs. We
request the Director-General, following coordination with heads of the other
agencies, to provide an interim report to the General Council in
December 2002 and a full report to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial
Conference on all issues affecting LDCs.
44. We reaffirm that
provisions for special and differential treatment are an integral part of
the WTO Agreements. We note the concerns expressed regarding their operation
in addressing specific constraints faced by developing countries,
particularly least-developed countries. In that connection, we also note
that some members have proposed a Framework Agreement on Special and
Differential Treatment (WT/GC/W/442). We therefore agree that all special
and differential treatment provisions shall be reviewed with a view to
strengthening them and making them more precise, effective and operational.
In this connection, we endorse the work programme on special and
differential treatment set out in the Decision on Implementation-Related
Issues and Concerns.
45. The negotiations to be pursued under the terms of this declaration shall be concluded not later than 1 January 2005. The Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference will take stock of progress in the negotiations, provide any necessary political guidance, and take decisions as necessary. When the results of the negotiations in all areas have been established, a Special Session of the Ministerial Conference will be held to take decisions regarding the adoption and implementation of those results.
46. The overall conduct of the negotiations shall be supervised by a Trade Negotiations Committee under the authority of the General Council. The Trade Negotiations Committee shall hold its first meeting not later than 31 January 2002. It shall establish appropriate negotiating mechanisms as required and supervise the progress of the negotiations.
47. With the exception of the improvements and clarifications of the Dispute Settlement Understanding, the conduct, conclusion and entry into force of the outcome of the negotiations shall be treated as parts of a single undertaking. However, agreements reached at an early stage may be implemented on a provisional or a definitive basis. Early agreements shall be taken into account in assessing the overall balance of the negotiations.
48. Negotiations shall be open to:
Decisions on the outcomes of the negotiations shall be taken only by WTO members.
49. The negotiations shall be conducted in a transparent manner among participants, in order to facilitate the effective participation of all. They shall be conducted with a view to ensuring benefits to all participants and to achieving an overall balance in the outcome of the negotiations.
50. The negotiations and the other aspects of the Work Programme shall take fully into account the principle of special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed countries embodied in: Part IV of the GATT 1994; the Decision of 28 November 1979 on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries; the Uruguay Round Decision on Measures in Favour of Least-Developed Countries; and all other relevant WTO provisions.
51. The Committee on Trade and Development and the Committee on Trade and Environment shall, within their respective mandates, each act as a forum to identify and debate developmental and environmental aspects of the negotiations, in order to help achieve the objective of having sustainable development appropriately reflected.
52. Those elements of the Work Programme which do not involve negotiations are also accorded a high priority. They shall be pursued under the overall supervision of the General Council, which shall report on progress to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference.
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