An Overview



Success of Grameen Shakti in the Field of Renewable Energy Sector in Bangladesh

Paper Presented in Plenary Session “Best Practices and Success Stories” of International Conference for Renewable Energies, Bonn, Germany June 1-4, 2004
PDF Format

Energy security is the most critical issue for sustainable development. It indicated the availability of energy
 in different forms at all time to the users according to their needs at reasonable and affordable prices. As  energy is considered essential for economic development its production, supply, transfer, transmission and sustainable use is every crucial for the nation. Thus sustainable energy development can therefore be defined as the set of policies and practices and new technologies which provide the energy needed for every body’s legitimate demand at least financial, environmental and social cost.  Considering the urgency for evolving implementation of a coherent global program of sustainable energy development first placed at United Nation Conference on the Human Environment in 1972. Two decades later global community adopted agenda 21 at the United National Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held at Rio Janeirio, Brazil in 1992 called “Earth Summit”. Agenda 21 emphases the need for increasing the supply of energy commensurate with the economic growth and create more employment opportunities without compromising the quality of life of the present and future generation. Thus a link is established between environmental degradation and poverty alleviation.   Rio-plus-Five reviewed the implementation of agenda 21 held in 1997, and proposed that international agencies should move from “Agenda to Action”. The next review meeting is scheduled in 2002 at Johannesburg in South Africa.

Keeping in view of the energy supply constraint of the developing country like Bangladesh, the following agenda needs to be taken into consideration;

  1. Accessibility of energy;
  2. Energy efficiency;
  3. Sustainable use of renewable energy;
  4. Development of rural energy;
  5. Development of advanced fossil fuel technologies;
  6. Improvement of nuclear energy technologies;

Currently, more than half of the world population living in the rural areas still has no access to modern forms of energy. Vast majority of the population are living in the rural areas are dependent on the traditional sources of energy. The situation in Bangladesh is rather graver hardly 20% of the population has access to modern energy and the rest are dependent on traditional sources of energy.

The problems of increasing the supply of modern sources of energy can be identified as follows:

  1. Inadequate supply of modern fuels in the developing countries;

  2. Constraints of adequate foreign exchange for oil imports;

  3. Budget constraints for making heavy investment to generate electricity;

  4. Un-uniform efforts to improve equitable energy accessibility;

  5. Lack of appropriate global and regional partnerships.

Asia-Energy and the Environment
During 1990s more than  50% of the primary energy needs in Asia were supplied by coal. In China, coal supplied approximately 76% of primary energy needs in 1990. Coal use more environmentally hazardous than any other sources often recognized. In addition to this is contributing to the global warming phenomenon causing local / regional air pollution. There are other detrimental issue of coal-fired energy supply are; land degradation for mining and fly-ash dumps, acid mine drainage, and over use of water resources for coal processing. The outlook for the future of coal use in Asia is alarmingly high - suggesting a future of unsustainable energy planning in the national, regional, and global contexts of the word.

The developing countries' share of world commercial energy use increased from 16 to about 25% between 1970 and 1988. China, India, and Brazil comprised about 45% of the developing world's consumption of commercial and traditional fuels in 1988, with China alone accounting for 30%. Coupled with the above (global) average burning of coal, the Asian region is also the location of the greatest population pressures. The doubling of the population is projected in the Asia region that may  result in remarkable increase in energy consumption by the 21st century.

The current alarming situation demands to undertake a sustainable energy development program. The areas for action have be identified:

  1. developing policies to promote energy utilization for poverty alleviation by ensuring supply of energy at an affordable price.

  2. planning capacity building by establishing a clear linkages to other sector

  3. promotion of demand supply side energy program

  4. promotion and application of renewable and clean energy  technology

  5. promotion of indigenous technologies like biogas and energy saving stoves.

  6. efficient use of local  resources and establishment of effective regional and global cooperation.

In order to achieve those objectives the Government of Bangladesh launched “National Energy policy” in 1995.



Click to view in details



The Energy Sector  Indicators

Items 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99
A. Electricity        
Total Installed capacity (MW) 2908 2908 3091 3603
Maximum Demand (MW) 2087 2114 2136 2449
Generation (106  KWH) 11474 11858 12882 13872
Consumption (106KWH) 7454 7822 10169 9421
Transmission lines in Kilo metre : 3055 3092 3092 3092
Distribution lines in kilo metre : 111030 120145 128957 129991
  11 KV & 11/4 KV Electrification (No.):        
  a. Thana 479 875 875 875
  b. Village 22260 23830 26153 26530
  c. Deep/Shallow & Low lift pumps 38341 39544 39738 39839
B. Gas        
Production (106 cu metre)) 7520 7390 7953 7781
Consumption (106 cu metre) of which        
Electricity 3140 3138 3495 3989
Fertilizer 2576 2204 2266 2342
Industrial 773 844 948 1046
Commercial 84 93 97 103
Domestic 588 647 706 764
Total Consumers ('000') 687 765 831 903
C. Petroleum ('000' M. Ton) Imports:        
  (i) Crude Oil 1141 1343 1128 1144
  (ii) Petroleum products 1466 1581 1703 1723
  Production of refined products 1160 1330 1174 1252
  Supply of all petroleum products 2282 2798 2766 2782
  Consumption 2484 2834 2908 2925
Note : BTU-British Thermal Unit. Cons.-Consumption.  
Source: PDB, BOGMC, BPC    



© Copyright and Fair Use
SDNP Bangladesh holds the © copyright to its publications
and web pages but encourages duplication of these materials for
noncommercial purposes. Proper citation is required.
Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP)
E-17 Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.