Acrylamide- an organic amide that is derived from acrylic acid and polymerizes readily

Maximum Contaminant Level: Treatment Technique: In cases where the EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish a Maximum Contaminant Level, they have instead required specific treatment methods to be used to control the level of the contaminant in drinking water.

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:   zero

Major Use: manufacture of synthetic textile fibers

Other Uses: none

Trade Names: 2-Propanamide, Acrylic amide, Ethylenecarboxamide, Amresco Acryl-40, Acrylagel, Optimum

Potential Health Effects:   Short-term: damage to the nervous system, weakness and loss of coordination in the legs. Long-term: damage to the nervous system, paralysis; cancer

Alachlor- an organic solid that is white and odorless

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.002 ppm (2 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: herbicide for control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in crops primarily on corn, sorghum and soybeans

Other Uses: none

Trade Names: Alachlor, Lasagrin, Lassagrin, Lasso, Lazo, Metachlor, Pillarzo, Alanox, Alanex, Chimichlor

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: slight skin and eye irritation. Long-term: damage to liver, kidneys, spleen; lining of nose and eyelids; cancer

Antimony - an inorganic crystalline metal that is brittle, metallic silvery-white and is found in natural deposits as ores containing other elements
Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.006 ppm (6 ppb)
Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.006 ppm (6 ppb)>
Major Use: flame retardant
Other Uses: found in batteries, pigments, ceramics and glass
Potential Health Effects:  Short term: nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Long term: decreased longevity, and altered blood levels of glucose and cholesterol.

Arsenic- an inorganic crystalline element that is brittle, metallic steel-gray and poisonous

Maximum Contaminant Level:   0.05 ppm (50 ppb) The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires the EPA to revise the existing drinking water standard for arsenic. The new standard will protect against possible adverse health effects from exposure to this contaminant and will reflect the statutory evaluation of whether the costs are justified by the benefits.

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline: MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act.  Therefore, there is no MCLG for this contaminant.

Major Use: insecticide and weed killer

Other Uses: semiconductor manufacturing, petroleum refining, wood preservatives and animal feed additives

Potential Health Effects: Skin damage; circulatory system problems; increased risk of cancer.

Asbestos- any of several inorganic minerals that readily separate into long flexible fibers

Maximum Contaminant Level:  7 million fibers / liter

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  7 million fibers / liter

Major Use: formerly as a fireproof insulating material

Other Uses: roofing materials, brake pads, cement pipes that are commonly used in distributing water to communities

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: Asbestos is not known to cause any health problems when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time. Long-term: Asbestos has the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: lung disease; cancer.

Atrazine- an organic white, solid, crystalline compound

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.003 ppm (3 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.003 ppm (3 ppb)

Major Use: herbicide for control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds.  Primarily used on corn and soybeans crops.

Other Uses: none

Trade Names: Aatrex, Actinite PK, Akticon, Argezin, Atazinax, Atranex, Atrataf, Atred, Candex, Cekuzina-T, Chromozin, Crisatrina, Cyazin, Fenamin, Fenatrol, Gesaprim, Griffex, Hungazin, Inakor, Pitezin, Primatol, Radazin, Strazine, Vectal, Weedex A, Wonuk, Zeapos, Zeazine

Potential Health Effects:  Short-term: congestion of heart, lungs and kidneys; low blood pressure; muscle spasms; weight loss; damage to adrenal glands. Long-term: weight loss, cardiovascular damage, retinal and some muscle degeneration; cancer

Barium- an inorganic metallic element that is malleable, silver-white, toxic and occurs only in combination

Maximum Contaminant Level:  2 ppm (200 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:   2 ppm (200 ppb)

Major Use: well drilling operations

Other Uses: making a wide variety of electronic components, metal alloys, bleaches, dyes, fireworks, ceramics and glass

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: Gastrointestinal disturbances and muscular weakness. Long-term: High blood pressure.

Benzene- an organic liquid that is colorless, aromatic and highly flammable

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.005 ppm (5 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: a building block for making plastics, rubber, resins and synthetic fabrics like nylon and polyester

Other Uses: as a solvent, in printing, paints, dry cleaning and motor fuel

Trade Names:Benzol 90, Pyrobenzol, Polystream, Coal naphtha Phene

Potential Health Effects:  Short-term: temporary nervous system disorders, immune system depression, anemia. Long-term: chromosome aberrations, cancer.

Benzo(a)pyrene- an organic yellow crystalline carcinogenic hydrocarbon

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.0002 ppm (0.2 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: the result of incomplete combustion of organic materials

Other Uses: found in coal tar

Trade Names: BaP, 3,4, Benz(a)pyrene

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: red blood cell damage, leading to anemia; suppressed immune system. Long-term: developmental and reproductive effects; cancer

Beryllium - an inorganic metallic element that is brittle, light, strong, steel-gray and toxic

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.004 ppm (4 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.004 ppm (4 ppb)

Major Use: making metal alloys for nuclear reactors and the aerospace industry

Other Uses:

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: Inflammation of the lungs when inhaled; less toxic in drinking water. Long-term: Damage to bones and lungs; cancer.

Beta Particles and Photon Emitters

Radionuclides are elements that are undergoing a process of natural decay.  As they decay, they emit ionizing radiation in the form of alpha or beta particles and gamma photons.  Radiation can cause various forms of cancer.

Maximum Contaminant Level:  4 millirems per year

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline: none

Potential Health Effects: Increased  risk of cancer

Sources: Decay of natural and man-made deposits

Cadmium- an inorganic metallic element that is malleable, ductile, bluish-white and toxic

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.005 ppm (5 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.005 ppm (5 ppb)

Major Use: metal plating and coating operations including transportation equipment, machinery and baking enamels, photography and television phosphors

Other Uses: used in nickel-cadmium, solar batteries and pigments

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle cramps, salivation, sensory disturbances, liver injury, convulsions, shock and renal failure. Long-term: Kidney, liver, bone and blood damage.

Carbofuran-an organic white crystalline solid with a slight phenolic odor

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.04 ppm (40 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.04 ppm (40 ppb)

Major Use: insecticide for alfalfa and rice

Other Uses: insecticide for turf and grapes

Trade Names: Niagra 10242, Furadan 4F or 3G, Brifur, Crisfuran, Chinufur, Curaterr, Yaltox, Pillafuran, Kenofuran

Potential Health Effects:  Short-term: headache, sweating, nausea, diarrhea, chest pains, blurred vision, anxiety and general muscular weakness. Long-term: damage to nervous and reproductive systems

Carbon Tetrachloride- an organic liquid that is colorless, heavy and nonflammable with a chloroform-like odor

Maximum Contaminant Level: 0.005 ppm (5 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: used to make chlorofluorocarbon propellants and refrigerants (these uses are declining rapidly)

Other Uses: as a dry cleaning agent, fire extinguisher, in making nylon, as a solvent for rubber cement, soaps and insecticides

Trade Names: Perchloromethane, Methane tetrachloride, Benzinoform, Univerm, Necatorina, Facsiolin, Flukoids R10 (refrigerant), Tetraform, Tetrasol, Freon 10, Halon 104

Potential Health Effects:  Short-term: liver, kidney and lung damage. Long-term: liver damage; cancer.

Chlordane- an organic liquid that is highly chlorinated, viscous and volatile

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.002 ppm (2 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: As of April 14, 1988, all commercial use of chlordane in the US has been cancelled. The only commercial use of chlordane products still permitted is for fire ant control in power transformers. No other uses are permitted.

Other Uses: widely used historically as an insecticide on crops, and ornamentals both commercially and in households

Trade Names: Velsicol 1068, Aspon-chlordane, Belt, Chlorindan, Chlor-Kil, Cortilan-Neu, Dowchlor, Oktachlor, Oktaterr, Synklor, Tat-Chlor 4, Topiclor, Toxichlor, Intox 8, Gold Crest C-100, Kilex, Kypchlor, Niran, Termi-Ded, Prentox, Pentiklor

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: central nervous system effects- including irritability, excess salivation, labored breathing, tremors, convulsions, deep depression- and blood system effects such as anemia and certain types of leukemia. Long-term: damage to liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen and adrenal glands; cancer.

 

Chlorobenzene- an organic liquid that is colorless, flammable, volatile and toxic with a faint almond-like odor

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.1 ppm (100 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.1 ppm (100 ppb)

Major Use: used in the manufacture of other organic chemicals such as dyestuffs and insecticides

Other Uses: solvent for adhesives, drugs, rubber, paints, dry cleaning and as a fiber swelling agent in textile processing

Trade Names: Benzene chloride, Chlorbenzol, Monochlorobenzene, Phenyl chloride, IP Carrier T 40, Tetrosin SP

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: anesthetic effects and impaired liver and kidney function. Long-term: liver, kidney and central nervous system damage.

Chromium- an inorganic metallic element that is bluish-white and found only in combination with other elements

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.1 ppm (100 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.1 ppm (100 ppb)

Major Use: metal alloys such as stainless steel, protective coatings on metal, magnetic tapes and electroplating

Other Uses: pigments for paints, cement, paper, rubber, composition floor coverings and wood preserving

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: Skin irritation or ulceration. Long-term: Skin irritation, damage to liver, kidney, circulatory and nerve tissues.

1,2-Dichloroethylene- an organic liquid that is odorless and has two slightly different forms, a “cis” form and a “trans” form that are usually mixed

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.07 ppm,

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.07 ppm

Major Use:

Other Uses: solvent for waxes and resins; in the extraction of rubber, and oils and fats from fish and meat; as a refrigerant; in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and artificial pearls and in making other organics

Trade Names: 1,2-DCE, Acetylene dichloride

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: central nervous system depression. Long-term: Both cis- and trans-1,2-DCE have the potential to cause liver, circulatory and nervous system damage.  The trans form is approximately twice as potent as the cis form in its ability to depress the central nervous system.

Coliform: Total and FecalTotal coliforms are bacteria common in the environment and are not generally harmful themselves.  However, their presence in drinking water may be a result of problems with water treatment or distribution and may indicate that other organisms may be present.

Fecal coliforms are bacteria associated with sewage and animal wastes.  Their presence in drinking water indicates that the water may be contaminated with organisms that can cause disease.

Maximum Contaminant Level:  No more than 5.0% of samples should detect total coliforms in one month.  Every system that detects total coliform must be analyzed for fecal coliforms.

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Potential Health Effects: Gastroenteric disease

Sources: Human and animal fecal waste

Copper- a common metallic element that is malleable, ductile, reddish-brown and is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity

Maximum Contaminant Level: Treatment Technique: In cases where the EPA has determined it is not technically or economically feasible to establish a Maximum Contaminant Level, they have instead required specific treatment methods to be used to control the level of the contaminant in drinking water.

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:   1.3 ppm (1300 ppb)

Major Use: household plumbing

Other Uses: computer circuitry manufacturing, copper wiring and copper art

Potential Health Effects: Short- and Long-term effects: Copper is an essential nutrient, required by the body in very small amounts. However, the EPA has found copper to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the Action Level for relatively short periods of time: stomach and intestinal distress, liver and kidney damage, and anemia. Persons with Wilson's disease may be more sensitive than others to the effects of copper contamination.

Cyanide- an inorganic compound of cyanogens with a more electropositive element or group

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.2 ppm (200 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.2 ppm (200 ppb)

Major Use: Production of compounds needed to make nylon and other synthetic fibers and resins

Other Uses: herbicides, electroplating, fumigating, steel treating, gold and silver extraction from ore

Potential Health Effects:Short-term: Rapid breathing, tremors and other neurological effects. Long-term: Thyroid effects, nerve damage. 

2,4-D- an organic crystalline powder compound that is white, odorless and an irritant

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.07 ppm (70 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.07 ppm (70 ppb)

Major Use: weed killer for wheat, corn, pasture and rangeland

Other Uses: control of broadleaf weeds and woody plants along roadsides, railways, and utility rights of way

Trade Names: "Agent White", Bladex-B, Brush Killer 64, Dicofur, Dormon, Ipaner, Moxon, Netagrone, Pielik, Verton 38, Mota Maskros, Silvaprop 1, Agricorn D, Acme LV4, Croprider, Fernesta, Lawn-Keep, Pennamine D, Plantguard, Tributon, Weed-B-Gon, Weedatul, Agroxone, Weedar, Salvo, Green Cross Weed-No-More 80, Red Devil Dry Weed Killer, Scott's 4XD, Weed Rhap LV 40, Weedone 100, 2,4-Dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: nervous system damage. Long-term: damage to the nervous system, kidneys and liver.

Dalapon- an organic liquid that is colorless with an acrid odor that is not used directly but mixed commercially with sodium salt or sodium and magnesium salts

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.0002 ppm (0.2 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.0002 ppm (0.2 ppb)

Major Use: herbicide used to control grasses in a wide variety of crops including fruit trees, beans, coffee, corn, cotton and peas

Other Uses: non crop applications like lawns, drainage ditches, along railroad tracks and in industrial areas

Trade Names: Revenge, Alatex, Basfapon, Basinex, Crisapon, Dawpon-RAE, Ded-Weed, Dawpon, Gramevin, Kenapon, Liropon, Propon, Radapon, Unipon, S-1315, S-95, 2,2-DPA, 2,2-dichloro-proprionic acid

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: none known. Long-term: increased kidney-to-body weight

Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate- an organic liquid that is oily, light-colored, and has an aromatic odor

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.4 ppm (400 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  0.4 ppm (400 ppb)

Major Use: Plastics production

Other Uses: solvent, aircraft lubricant, hydraulic fluid, plasticizer or solvent in these cosmetics; bath oils, eyeshadow, cologne, foundations, rouge, blusher, nail polish remover, moisturizers and indoor tanning preparations, and  in meat wrapping operations

Trade Names: Adipol 2EH, Bisoflex DOA, Effomoll DOA, Kodiflex DOA, Monoplex DOA, Plastomoll DOA, Sicol 250, Trueflex DOA, Vestinol OA, Wickenol 158, Witamol 320, Ergoplast AdDO, Kemester 5652, Reomol DOA, Rucoflex DOA, Staflex DOA

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: none known. Long-term: reduced body weight and bone mass, damage to liver and testes; cancer

Dibromochloropropane- an organic liquid that is dense,  yellow and has a pungent odor

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.0002 ppm (0.2 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: unclassified nematocide for soil fumigation

Other Uses: used in these crops; cucumbers, summer squash, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, snap beans, okra, aster, shasta daisy, lawn grasses and ornamental shrubs

Trade Names: DBCP, BBC 12, Fumagon, Fumazone, Nemabrom, Nemafum, Nemagon, Nemanax, Nemapaz, Nemaset, Nemazon, Gro-Tone Nematode, Durham Nematocide

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: kidney and liver damage and atrophy of the testes. Long-term: kidney damage and loss of fertility; cancer

1,2-Dibromoethane or Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)- an organic liquid compound that is heavy, colorless and toxic with a mildly sweet chloroform-like odor

Maximum Contaminant Level:  0.00005 ppm (0.05 ppb)

Maximum Contaminant Level Guideline:  zero

Major Use: anti-knock gasoline mixtures, particularly in aviation fuel

Other Uses: a solvent for resins, gums and waxes; water proofing preparations; drug and dye production; and as a pesticide for grain and fruit

Trade Names: EDB, Glycol dibromide, Bromofume, Dowfume, W85, Aadibroom, Iscobrome-D, Nefis, Pestmaster, EDB 85, Soilbrom, Soilfume, Kopfume

Potential Health Effects: Short-term: damage to the liver, stomach and adrenal glands, along with significant reproductive system toxicity, particularly the testes. Long-term: damage to the respiratory system, nervous system, liver, heart and kidneys; cancer,